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Urartu

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Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, (urartäisch Biainili, assyrischKUR​Artaya KURURI akkadisch KURUraštu, biblisch vermutlich Ararat) war ein. Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, war ein altorientalisches Reich um den Vansee in Kleinasien, das sich später bis in das Urmia- und Sewanbecken sowie die Arax-Ebene ausbreitete. Urartu (9. Jh. bis 7. Jh. v. Chr.) Sprachcodes. ISO xur. Kaukasus (und Urartu). Ġambašije, I. Georgien - Schätze aus dem Land des goldenen Vlies, Katalog Bochum (Bochum); Giemsch, L. / Hansen, S. (Hrsg.)​. is devoted to archaeological and historical research in the area of the ancient near-eastern kingdom of "Biainili", better known by the Assyrian name "Urartu".

Urartu

Kaukasus (und Urartu). Ġambašije, I. Georgien - Schätze aus dem Land des goldenen Vlies, Katalog Bochum (Bochum); Giemsch, L. / Hansen, S. (Hrsg.)​. Wasserbauten im Königreich Urartu und weitere Beiträge zur Hydrotechnik in der Antike Übersicht über Arbeiten und Grabungen im Gebiet des Königreiches. Das Urartäische Reich auch kurz Urarṭu, (urartäisch Biainili, assyrischKUR​Artaya KURURI akkadisch KURUraštu, biblisch vermutlich Ararat) war ein. As the Armenian identity developed in the Urartu, the memory of Urartu faded and finden in Dammerstorf Beste Spielothek. The first century of the new kingdom seems to have emphasized military operations in imitation of Assyriaand Urartu waged relentless warfare on its neighbours to the east, west, and north. According to historian Touraj Daryaee, during the Armenian rebellion against the Persian king Darius I in BC, some of the personal and topographic Urartu attested in connection with Armenia or Armenians were of Urartian origin, suggesting that Urartian elements persisted within Armenia source its fall. Modern age. The Urartian language is an ergative - agglutinative languagewhich belongs to neither the Semitic nor the Indo-European language familiesbut to the Hurro-Urartian language family, which is not known to be related to any other language or language family, despite repeated attempts to find genetic links. Zimansky, Archaeological inquiries into ethno-linguistic diversity in Urartuw: Drews R.

Urartu Video

Urartu

Urartu - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Um zumindest einige der Festungen lagen Zivil-Siedlungen. Person Singular oft nicht zu erkennen, Bsp. Die Götter wurden, wie in Mesopotamien, mit Hörnerkrone dargestellt. Rusai URU. Feldzug von Sargon II. Internationale Tagung: " Der archäologische Befund und seine Historisierung: Dokumentation und ihre Interpretationsspielräume " Innsbruck Oktober MpaГџ Gutschein Wittenberg. Urartu lag im östlichen Anatolienumfasste Teile Transkaukasiens und hatte seine Ostgrenze am Urmiasee. Neben Königssiegeln sind auch Prinzensiegel Urartu. In deutscher Sprache wurde dieses Werk allerdings erst herausgegeben und den meisten Altorientalisten erst dadurch zugänglich. Urartu

Urartu Video

Urartu lived on as a satrapy, and later as an independent kingdom called Armenia. Urartaean helmet. Urartaean helmet with crest. Urartaean goddess.

Urartaean quiver and arrows. Urartaean seals. Urartaean bowl from Van-Rusahinili. Yerevan, Urartaean idol. Statue of ram Urartaean?

Yerevan, Urartaean Mortar and Pestle. Yerevan, Urartaean Pottery. The temple of Haldi at Ardini was richly endowed by the Urartian kings but was open to Assyrian worshipers.

It seems that the state religion received its established form at that time, and the hierarchy of the many gods in the Urartian pantheon is expressed by a list of sacrifices due them.

The first evidence of engineering projects, designed to increase the productivity of the home country by irrigation , dates to the reign of Meinua.

Under those kings, Urartu thrust out westward to the great bend of the Euphrates River and intermittently beyond, toward Melitene modern Malatya and the ancient Syrian district of Commagene , thus cutting off one of the main supply roads by which Assyria obtained essential iron from the western Taurus Mountains.

Argishti I subdued the Melitene Hilaruada c. For a short time Urartu thus had a bridgehead west of the Euphrates from Malatya to Halfeti ancient Halpa in Commagene, and its empire reached to within 20 miles 32 km of Aleppo in northern Syria.

Argishti and Sarduri also embarked on what was in the end to prove the most fruitful of all Urartian ventures: the conquest and subsequent agricultural exploitation of the regions across the Aras River.

Further advance to the northwest was checked by a new adversary, the kingdom of Qulha Greek: Colchis.

The tens of thousands of prisoners taken on the yearly military campaigns in one year as many as 39, provided the manpower for intensive cultivation of the royal estates and processing of their crops.

Several times the Urartian kings of that period claimed, probably with justification, to have defeated Assyrian armies: Argishti reported victories over the Assyrians in his sixth and seventh regnal years, when he operated in the Zab and Lake Urmia areas; and Sarduri II defeated the Assyrian king Ashur-nirari V in the upper basin of the Tigris River about The period — saw the renewal of Assyrian expansion.

In spite of the support of a number of south Anatolian and north Syrian vassals, Sarduri II lost ground steadily, and in Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria — defeated him and his allies in Commagene near Halfeti.

In the metal-rich Taurus Mountains, the kingdom of Tabal remained a potential ally of Rusas I, as well as of the Phrygian king Midas of the legendary golden touch.

In the same year, Sargon began to close in on Urartu from the east. For two years, operations were mostly limited to western Iran.

There Assyria championed the interests of the kingdom of Manna , while Urartu aided and abetted Iranian tribes encroaching upon Manna from the east and north.

But behind the Urartian lines Assyrian intelligence officers were collecting information with a view to a much more-ambitious military undertaking against Urartu.

What finally tipped the scales in favour of Assyria was the opening up of a second front: the Cimmerians , a nomadic people from the Caucasus , invaded Urartu shortly before Perhaps Rusas I c.

In any case, Rusas soon found the Cimmerians at his borders. The Urartians originally would have used these locally developed hieroglyphs, but later adapted the Assyrian cuneiform script for most purposes.

After the 8th century BC, the hieroglyphic script would have been restricted to religious and accounting purposes. The Kingdom of Urartu, during its dominance, had united disparate tribes, each of which had its own culture and traditions.

Thus, when the political structure was destroyed, little remained that could be identified as one unified Urartian culture. Far from being grounded on long standing cultural uniformities, [Urartu] was merely a superstructure of authority, below which there was plenty of room for the groups to manifest in the Anatolia of Xenophon to flourish.

We need not hypothesize massive influxes of new peoples, ethnic replacement, or any very great mechanisms of cultural change. The Armenians, Carduchoi , Chaldaioi , and Taochoi could easily have been there all along, accommodated and concealed within the structure of command established by the Urartian kings.

Ultimately, little is known of what was truly spoken in the geopolitical region until the creation of the Armenian alphabet in the 4th century AD.

The presence of a population who spoke Proto-Armenian in Urartu prior to its demise is subject to speculation, but the existence of Urartian words in the Armenian language and Armenian loanwords into Urartian [71] suggests early contact between the two languages and long periods of bilingualism.

However, recent genetic research suggests that the Armenian ethnogenesis was completed by BCE, making the arrival of an Armenian-speaking population as late as the Bronze Age Collapse unlikely.

This intermixing would ultimately culminate in the emergence of the Armenian language as the dominant language within the region.

A theory, supported by the official historiography of Armenia and experts in Assyrian and Urartian studies such as Igor M.

Diakonoff, Giorgi Melikishvili , Mikhail Nikolsky, and Ivan Mestchaninov, suggests that Urartian was solely the formal written language of the state, while its inhabitants, including the royal family, spoke Proto-Armenian.

This theory primarily hinges on the fact that the Urartian language used in the cuneiform inscriptions were very repetitive and scant in vocabulary having as little as — roots.

Furthermore, over years of usage, it shows no development, which is taken to indicate that the language had ceased to be spoken before the time of the inscriptions or was used only for official purposes.

A complementary theory, suggested by Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov in , places the Proto-Indo-European homeland the location where Indo-European would have emerged from in the Armenian Highlands, which would entail the presence of proto-Armenians in the area during the entire lifetime of the Urartian state.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Iron Age kingdom located in a large region around Lake Van. Biainili [1]. Urartian Proto-Armenian [2].

Name People Language. Stone and Copper Age Shulaveri-Shomu culture c. Achaemenid period Satrapy of Armina — BC. Middle Ages.

Arabic period Emirate of Armenia — Early modern age. Perso - Ottoman period Iranian Armenia — Modern age. Independence First Republic of Armenia — This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Satrapy of Armenia. Further information: Origin of the Armenians. Main article: Economy of Urartu.

Main article: Art of Urartu. Main article: Urartian language. Main article: Proto-Armenian language. Asia portal. Annual of Armenian Linguistics.

The kingdom of Armenia: a history 2nd revised ed. Richmond: Curzon. The History of Ancient Iran. Munich: C.

The real heirs of the Urartians, however, were neither the Scythians nor Medes but the Armenians.

The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.

Armenia: Cradle of Civilization 3rd ed. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, , p. Armenia: Cradle of Civilization.

London: Allen and Unwin, , p. Cornwall: Blackwell, , pp. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press.

Diakonoff, "The Pre-history of the Armenian People". Delmar, New York , p. The Ancient Civilization of Urartu. New York: Cowles Book Co.

Berlin: B. Behr, — Antiquities of the Jews. Translated by Whiston, William. Mental Systems, Inc. Retrieved 8 June Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary.

The Kingdom of Armenia: A History. Psychology Press. Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume I in Armenian. Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti.

Archived from the original on Retrieved A History of the Ancient Near East c. Cornwall: Blackwell, , p. Edwards, I. Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen , Cyril John , David Malcolm , Walbank, F.

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