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Cleopatra AuГџehen

Cleopatra AuГџehen

Filmarile au inceput in Londra in Mankiewicz a fost adus in productie dupa plecarea primului regizor Rouben Mamoulian , care avea in gand pentru rolul principal pe actrita afro-americana Dorothy Dandridge.

Mankiewicz insusi a fost mai tarziu concediat in faza editarilor,pentru a fi mai apoi reangajat fiindca nimeni nu reusea sa monteze scenele turnate intr-un film.

Elizabeth Taylor s-a imbolnavit pe parcursul filmarilor din Londra si a fost dusa la urgenta unde i s-a facut traheotomie pentru a ii salva viata.

Cicatricea rezultata poate fi vazuta in unele secvente. Filmarile au fost oprite o perioada. Productia a fost mutata la Roma dupa sase luni dupa ce vremea din Anglia s-a dovedit impotriva recuperari lui Liz Taylor si responsabila de deteriorarea constanta a decorurilor si plantelor exotice costisitoare, necesare filmarilor.

In timpul filmarilor Taylor il intanleste pe Richard Burton si cei doi incep o relatie devenita foarte publica si mediatizata.

Filmul montat pentru studio de Mankiewicz avea 6 ore. Acesta a fost taiat la patru ore pentru premiera initiala,dar studioul a cerut desi regizorul a obiectat ca filmul sa fie taiat inca odata la aproape trei ore pentru a permite cinematografelor sa mareasca numarul de vizionari pe zi.

Drept urmare multe detalii au fost eliminate , ca moartea lui Rufio. Regizorul a incercat fara succes sa convinga studioul sa imparta filmul in doua pentru a pastra montajul original.

Filmul a fost lansat in format video pentru acasa in varianta premierei de de minute si se depun inca eforturi pentru a se gasi secventele lipsa unele deja au fost recuperate.

Cleopatra a castigat 4 premii Oscar Cea mai buna scenografie; Cea mai buna imagine, Cele mai bune costume, Cele mai bune efecte speciale si a mai fost nominalizat la alte 5 categorii.

Film Cleopatra. Nu ai cont? Program cinema. Dvd Dvd BluRay Soundtrack. A contribuit la sinopsis-ul filmului: neaion. Nota IMDB: 7. Trailere Cleopatra un trailer.

Imagini Cleopatra 31 imagini Vezi imagini. Distributie Cleopatra. Distribuitorul international 20th Century Fox. Data Rating. Brick Pollitt Paul Newman , an alcoholic ex-football player, drinks his days away and resists the affections of his wife, Maggie Dame Elizabeth Taylor.

His reunion with his father, Big Daddy Burl Ives , who is dying of cancer, jogs a host of memories and revelations for both father and son.

The death of Marcus Aurelius leads to a succession crisis, in which the deceased emperor's son, Commodus, demonstrates that he is unwilling to let anything undermine his claim to the Roman Empire.

The fabled Spanish hero Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar a. El Cid overcomes a family vendetta and court intrigue to defend Christian Spain against the Moors.

In the Roman province of Judea during the 1st century, Roman tribune Marcellus Gallio is ordered to crucify Jesus of Nazareth but is tormented by his guilty conscience afterwards.

A surgeon is assigned the case of a young woman whose aunt wants her lobotomized to cover up a family secret.

After a Jewish prince is betrayed and sent into slavery by a Roman friend, he regains his freedom and comes back for revenge.

In 48 B. To win Caesar's support from her brother, Cleopatra hides herself in a rug, which Apollodorus Cesare Danova , her servant, presents to Caesar.

The Roman is immediately infatuated. Banishing Ptolemy, he declares Cleopatra Egypt's sole ruler and takes her as his mistress.

A son, Caesarion Loris Loddi , is born of their union. Caesar, however, must return to Italy. Although he is briefly reunited with Cleopatra during a magnificent reception for the Queen in Rome, Caesar is assassinated shortly thereafter, and Cleopatra returns to Egypt.

Written by alfiehitchie. Cleopatra is a film of myths. A massively troubled production combined with the extraordinary love affair between Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton made for plenty of hype.

But what really matters nearly 40 years on is the film itself. At this distance it is possible to see the film for what it is.

A grand example of the final flowering of Hollywood. In it seemed old fashioned compared to the excitement of European cinema and what the critics perceived as new many of their favourite films of that era now just seem dated and pretentious.

But Cleopatra grows in stature with time. It is far from flawless. And certainly the second half is somehow not right.

Whether the missing two hours will reclaim this part of the film is yet to be seen. But compared with Gladiator or similar modern epics, Cleopatra is a brilliant film with an intelligent script, stunning design, masterly and beautiful cinematography in 70mm which sure beats 35mm and does justice to the intricate sets and design , an evocative and effective musical score and superb costumes and makeup.

The big three, Taylor, Burton and Harrison are extremely good and in the case of Harrison, who has many of the best lines, brilliant.

The supporting cast and especially Roddy McDowall are equally excellent. Cleopatra may not be a masterpiece but it is a superbly crafted and beautiful film.

If it fails, it fails because of our expectations. Sit back, put your feet up and luxuriate in a quality of film-making that you simply don't see today!

Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates.

Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings.

Although almost 50 ancient works of Roman historiography mention Cleopatra, these often include only terse accounts of the Battle of Actium, her suicide, and Augustan propaganda about her personal deficiencies.

Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino , the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Caesar. Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.

Cleopatra was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles. For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple.

Since the s scholars have debated whether or not the Esquiline Venus —discovered in on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums —is a depiction of Cleopatra, based on the statue's hairstyle and facial features , apparent royal diadem worn over the head, and the uraeus Egyptian cobra wrapped around the base.

Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC. The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.

Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.

Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra, [note 66] the sculpture known as the " Berlin Cleopatra ", located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection at the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the " Vatican Cleopatra ", located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.

Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum , London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.

Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum , Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen, while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums [1] [3] [].

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum [1] [3] [].

Another painting from Pompeii , dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.

In a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa , near Tivoli, Lazio , Italy, that depicted Cleopatra committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.

The Portland Vase , a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and now in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra with Antony.

In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture , [] a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films.

Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts , such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in In the performing arts , the death of Elizabeth I of England in , and the German publication in of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his play Cleopatra in In Victorian Britain , Cleopatra was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs , postcards and cigarettes.

Burnand 's Antony and Cleopatra offered satirical depictions of the queen connecting her and the environment she lived in with the modern age.

Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine.

Rowland, who highlights that the "Berenice called Cleopatra" cited by the 3rd- or 4th-century female Roman physician Metrodora was likely conflated by medieval scholars as referring to Cleopatra.

Cleopatra belonged to the Macedonian Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies , [8] [] [] [note 76] their European origins tracing back to northern Greece.

Cleopatra I Syra was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry, being a descendant of Apama , the Sogdian Iranian wife of Seleucus I.

Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship , [note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most.

Claims that Cleopatra was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda against her. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Cleopatra disambiguation. Last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt. The Berlin Cleopatra , a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem , mid-1st century BC around the time of her visits to Rome in 46—44 BC , discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany [1] [2] [3] [note 1].

Unlocated tomb probably in Egypt. Main article: Early life of Cleopatra. Further information: First Triumvirate.

Main articles: Early life of Cleopatra and Reign of Cleopatra. Left: Cleopatra dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis , on a limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris, dated 51 BC, and located in the Louvre , Paris.

Main article: Reign of Cleopatra. Further information: Liberators' civil war. Main articles: Donations of Alexandria and Reign of Cleopatra.

Main articles: Battle of Actium and Reign of Cleopatra. Main article: Death of Cleopatra. Further information: Ptolemaic coinage and Ancient Greek coinage.

Further information: Roman historiography , Greek historiography , Latin literature , and Latin poetry.

Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra. Further information: Ptolemaic coinage , Roman currency , and Ancient Greek coinage.

An ancient Roman portrait head , c. A steel engraving published by John Sartain in left depicting the now lost painted death portrait of Cleopatra, an encaustic painting discovered in in the ancient Roman ruins of the Egyptian temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli, Lazio ; [] she is seen here wearing the knotted garment of Isis corresponding with Plutarch 's description of her wearing the robes of Isis , [] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers such as Ptolemy V pictured to the right in a golden octodrachm minted in — BC.

Further information: Portland Vase. Further information: Medieval art , Medieval literature , Renaissance art , Renaissance literature , and Early Modern literature.

Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra , History of modern literature , and Egyptomania.

Further information: Ancient Greek literature and Ancient Egyptian literature. Burstein , p. Those in favor of claiming her death occurred on 10 August 30 BC include Roller , pp.

However, Duane W. Roller , relaying Theodore Cressy Skeat , affirms that Caesarion's reign "was essentially a fiction created by Egyptian chronographers to close the gap between [Cleopatra's] death and official Roman control of Egypt under the new pharaoh, Octavian ," citing, for instance, the Stromata by Clement of Alexandria Roller , pp.

Raia, Ann R. Bivar, A. Burstein, Stanley M. Gurval, Robert A. Holt, Frank L. Hsia, Chih-tsing , C. Johnson, Janet H. Jones, Prudence J.

Kennedy, David L. Roller, Duane W. Rowland, Ingrid D.

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Cleopatra AuГџehen Video

Antonius verliet continue reading gevecht om haar te volgen. Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine. Women in Hellenistic Egypt: from Alexander to Cleopatra. Farao over oude Egypte. Burstein, Stanley M. Francesca Annis Eiras, Cleopatra's handmaiden. More info in Egipt de Cezar, cei doi see more o aventura in urma careia regina ramane insarcinata. The big three, Taylor, Burton article source Harrison are extremely good and in the case of Harrison, who has many of the best lines, brilliant. Language: English.

Cleopatra AuГџehen Video

Het overtuigde de Senaat om een oorlog te beginnen tegen Egypte. In 31 v. Cleopatra was aanwezig met haar eigen vloot, maar toen zij zag dat de slecht uitgeruste schepen van Antonius begonnen te verliezen van de superieure Romeinen, koos zij het hazenpad.

Antonius verliet het gevecht om haar te volgen. Zo luidt althans de versie die later verspreid is door Octavianus. De kans is groot dat de 'vlucht' van beiden eerder een geplande uitbraakpoging was, nadat ze reeds zo goed als alle vlootbases in de regio verloren hadden aan Octavianus' generaal Agrippa.

Volgend op de Slag bij Actium viel Octavianus Egypte binnen. Cleopatra en Antonius pleegden beiden zelfmoord : Antonius stortte zich op zijn zwaard en Cleopatra vergiftigde zich volgens diverse bronnen [1] - na een afwijzing van haar voorstellen door Octavianus - met behulp van een of meerdere slangen op 12 augustus in 30 v.

De drie kinderen van Cleopatra en Antonius werden gespaard en meegenomen naar Rome waar zij werden opgevoed door de echtgenote van Antonius, Octavia.

Er werd vaak gezegd dat Cleopatra een aspisadder gebruikte om zich te doden, maar deze slangensoort komt niet in Egypte voor. Ook gaat het verhaal dat zij verscheidene dienaars vroeg om de verschillende vormen van zelfmoord uit te proberen, voordat zij de meest effectieve methode uitkoos.

Andere bronnen suggereren dat zij experimenteerde met verschillende vormen van "zelfmoord" op gevangenen. Ook werd er wel beweerd dat Cleopatra een kom met gif zou hebben gedronken om te sterven.

Het is niet duidelijk waar Cleopatra is begraven; haar graf is nooit gevonden. Misschien werd ze gecremeerd zoals dat ook met Julius Caesar is gebeurd.

Mogelijk heeft Rome een damnatio memoriae over Cleopatra uitgeroepen; er is namelijk weinig kunst van haar gevonden die stamt uit de tijd toen zij nog leefde.

Het verhaal van Cleopatra heeft diverse schrijvers en artiesten door de eeuwen heen gefascineerd. Die aantrekkingskracht kwam voor een belangrijk deel door haar legende als een grote verleidster die in staat was om de twee machtigste mannen van haar tijd Caesar en Antonius aan zich te binden.

De eerste Cleopatra film was Cleopatra uit De vroegste film over Cleopatra als hoofdonderwerp was Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt , met in de hoofdrol Helen Gardner Het bekendste schilderij van Cleopatra is er een dat nu waarschijnlijk niet meer bestaat: omdat de koningin in Egypte stierf lang voordat Augustus zijn triomftocht in Rome kon vieren, waarin zij geketend mee zou lopen, gaf hij opdracht om een groot schilderij van haar te maken, dat meegedragen werd in zijn triomfantelijke processie, en dat haar uitgebeeld zou hebben als vergiftigd door een aspisadder.

De bronnen voor het verhaal zijn Plut. Sindsdien wordt gezegd dat het schilderij onderdeel uitmaakte van een collectie in Cortona , maar het lijkt erop dat alle sporen naar dit schilderij verloren zijn gegaan, een stille verdwijning die doet vermoeden dat het een namaak betrof.

Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt experiences both triumph and tragedy as she attempts to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.

Director: Joseph L. Writers: Joseph L. Available on Amazon. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic. Elizabeth Taylor.

Favorite Films by Angelo Michael. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.

Everybody wants to rule the world? Wisdom of the Crowd? Won 4 Oscars. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Elizabeth Taylor Cleopatra Richard Burton Mark Antony Rex Harrison Julius Caesar Pamela Brown High Priestess George Cole Flavius Hume Cronyn Sosigenes Cesare Danova Apollodorus Kenneth Haigh Brutus Andrew Keir Agrippa Martin Landau Rufio Roddy McDowall Octavian - Caesar Augustus Robert Stephens Germanicus Francesca Annis Pothinus as Gregoire Aslan Martin Benson Learn more More Like This.

Quo Vadis Biography Drama History. The Ten Commandments Adventure Drama. Cat on a Hot Tin Roof The Fall of the Roman Empire Drama History War.

El Cid The Robe Drama History. Giant Drama Western. Antony and Cleopatra traveled together to Ephesus in 32 BC, where she provided him with of the naval ships he was able to acquire.

During the spring of 32 BC Antony and Cleopatra traveled to Athens, where she persuaded Antony to send Octavia an official declaration of divorce.

Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force.

Cleopatra and Antony had the support of various allied kings, but Cleopatra had already been in conflict with Herod, and an earthquake in Judea provided him with an excuse to be absent from the campaign.

Lucius Pinarius , Mark Antony's appointed governor of Cyrene, received word that Octavian had won the Battle of Actium before Antony's messengers could arrive at his court.

Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion.

Cleopatra had Caesarion enter into the ranks of the ephebi , which, along with reliefs on a stele from Koptos dated 21 September 31 BC, demonstrated that Cleopatra was now grooming her son to become the sole ruler of Egypt.

After lengthy negotiations that ultimately produced no results, Octavian set out to invade Egypt in the spring of 30 BC, [] stopping at Ptolemais in Phoenicia , where his new ally Herod provided his army with fresh supplies.

Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children. Cleopatra decided in her last moments to send Caesarion away to Upper Egypt, perhaps with plans to flee to Kushite Nubia , Ethiopia, or India.

Following the tradition of Macedonian rulers , Cleopatra ruled Egypt and other territories such as Cyprus as an absolute monarch , serving as the sole lawgiver of her kingdom.

Although almost 50 ancient works of Roman historiography mention Cleopatra, these often include only terse accounts of the Battle of Actium, her suicide, and Augustan propaganda about her personal deficiencies.

Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino , the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Caesar. Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.

Cleopatra was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles. For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple.

Since the s scholars have debated whether or not the Esquiline Venus —discovered in on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums —is a depiction of Cleopatra, based on the statue's hairstyle and facial features , apparent royal diadem worn over the head, and the uraeus Egyptian cobra wrapped around the base.

Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC. The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.

Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.

Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra, [note 66] the sculpture known as the " Berlin Cleopatra ", located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection at the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the " Vatican Cleopatra ", located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.

Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum , London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.

Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum , Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen, while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums [1] [3] [].

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum [1] [3] [].

Another painting from Pompeii , dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.

In a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa , near Tivoli, Lazio , Italy, that depicted Cleopatra committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.

The Portland Vase , a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and now in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra with Antony.

In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture , [] a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films.

Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts , such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in In the performing arts , the death of Elizabeth I of England in , and the German publication in of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his play Cleopatra in In Victorian Britain , Cleopatra was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs , postcards and cigarettes.

Burnand 's Antony and Cleopatra offered satirical depictions of the queen connecting her and the environment she lived in with the modern age.

Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine.

Rowland, who highlights that the "Berenice called Cleopatra" cited by the 3rd- or 4th-century female Roman physician Metrodora was likely conflated by medieval scholars as referring to Cleopatra.

Cleopatra belonged to the Macedonian Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies , [8] [] [] [note 76] their European origins tracing back to northern Greece.

Cleopatra I Syra was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry, being a descendant of Apama , the Sogdian Iranian wife of Seleucus I.

Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship , [note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most.

Claims that Cleopatra was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda against her. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cleopatra disambiguation.

Last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt. The Berlin Cleopatra , a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem , mid-1st century BC around the time of her visits to Rome in 46—44 BC , discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany [1] [2] [3] [note 1].

Unlocated tomb probably in Egypt. Main article: Early life of Cleopatra. Further information: First Triumvirate. Main articles: Early life of Cleopatra and Reign of Cleopatra.

Left: Cleopatra dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis , on a limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris, dated 51 BC, and located in the Louvre , Paris.

Main article: Reign of Cleopatra. Further information: Liberators' civil war. Main articles: Donations of Alexandria and Reign of Cleopatra.

Main articles: Battle of Actium and Reign of Cleopatra. Main article: Death of Cleopatra. Further information: Ptolemaic coinage and Ancient Greek coinage.

Further information: Roman historiography , Greek historiography , Latin literature , and Latin poetry. Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra.

Further information: Ptolemaic coinage , Roman currency , and Ancient Greek coinage. An ancient Roman portrait head , c. A steel engraving published by John Sartain in left depicting the now lost painted death portrait of Cleopatra, an encaustic painting discovered in in the ancient Roman ruins of the Egyptian temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli, Lazio ; [] she is seen here wearing the knotted garment of Isis corresponding with Plutarch 's description of her wearing the robes of Isis , [] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers such as Ptolemy V pictured to the right in a golden octodrachm minted in — BC.

Further information: Portland Vase. Further information: Medieval art , Medieval literature , Renaissance art , Renaissance literature , and Early Modern literature.

Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra , History of modern literature , and Egyptomania. Further information: Ancient Greek literature and Ancient Egyptian literature.

Burstein , p. Those in favor of claiming her death occurred on 10 August 30 BC include Roller , pp. However, Duane W. Roller , relaying Theodore Cressy Skeat , affirms that Caesarion's reign "was essentially a fiction created by Egyptian chronographers to close the gap between [Cleopatra's] death and official Roman control of Egypt under the new pharaoh, Octavian ," citing, for instance, the Stromata by Clement of Alexandria Roller , pp.

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